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The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus
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U.S. Veteran Exposes Pentagon’s Denials of Agent Orange Use on Okinawa  元米兵、沖縄での枯れ葉剤オレンジ使用にかんするペンタゴンの否定を明るみに

Jon Mitchell

U.S. Veteran Exposes Pentagon’s Denials of Agent Orange Use on Okinawa  Japanese translation available


Thousands of barrels of Agent Orange were unloaded on Okinawa Island and stored at the port of Naha, and at the U.S. military's Kadena and Camp Schwab bases between 1965 and 1966, an American veteran who served in Okinawa claims.

Larry Carlson at his home in Florida, April 12, 2012

In a Jacksonville Florida interview in early April with The Japan Times and Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting Co., a TV network based in Okinawa, former infantryman Larry Carlson, 67, also said that Okinawan stevedores were exposed to the highly toxic herbicide as they labored in the holds of ships, and that he witnessed it being sprayed at Kadena Air Base.

Carlson is one of only three American servicemen who have won benefits from the U.S. government over exposure to the toxic defoliant on Okinawa — and the first of them to step forward and reveal that massive amounts of it were kept on the island.

His claims, which are corroborated by five fellow soldiers and a 1966 U.S. government document, directly challenge the Pentagon's consistent denials that Agent Orange was ever stored on Okinawa.

"The U.S. Department of Defense has searched and found no record that the aircraft or ships transporting (Agent) Orange to South Vietnam stopped at Okinawa on their way," Maj. Neal Fisher, deputy director of public affairs for U.S. forces in Japan, recently informed the author.

But the VA's decision to grant Carlson benefits over his exposure to the herbicide  appears to fly in the face of this - and similar U.S. government denials - while also offering the closest that the authorities have yet come to admitting to the presence of Agent Orange on Okinawa.

"I am the tip of the iceberg. There are many others like me who were poisoned, but the VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) is denying their claims," Carlson said during the interview at his Florida home. "I urge those men to dig in and plant their feet."

During his time in the U.S. Army, Carlson was assigned to the 44th Transportation Company at the U.S. military port in Naha between December 1965 and April 1967, a period of major escalation of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and of the spraying of Agent Orange in Vietnam and Laos.

"Transport ships came in (from the United States) and we would move drums of Agent Orange. We worked 12 hours around the clock until we'd unloaded the ship," he said.

USS Comet - one of the ships used to transport Agent Orange to Okinawa

"A lot of the time, when they dropped the barrels in our truck they would leak. I got soaked at least three times and we couldn't do anything because we were driving (the barrels to storage sites) and couldn't shower until we got back to our barracks."

The SS Transglobe (highly decorated during the Vietnam War for having come under enemy fire more than any other civilian ship), the USS Comet and ships from the Sea Lines were most frequently used to transport Agent Orange to Okinawa, according to Carlson.

SS Transglobe - decorated Vietnam War transport vessel

Deliveries arrived every two months on average, and 1966 was the busiest time in terms of shipments, he said.

"It was hot and heavy then. They wanted us everywhere, and we were hauling everything — including Agent Orange," Carlson said.

After the barrels were unloaded, they were temporarily stored on Okinawa and then shipped to South Vietnam, where the U.S. military sprayed huge amounts of Agent Orange over jungles and crops during “Operation Ranch Hand” - an herbicidal warfare campaign against the Viet Cong.

The Vietnam Red Cross estimates that about 3 million Vietnamese are still suffering from their exposure to the dioxins contained in the herbicide, almost 40 years after the war ended. Adults who came into contact with Agent Orange developed a range of sicknesses including cancers, skin diseases and diabetes. Since dioxins are also fetotoxic, the children of those exposed were affected - they died in the womb or were stillborn; many others were born with crippling birth defects - both mental and physical. In Vietnam, an estimated 150,000 children are suffering from the impact of US herbicides.

Carlson's claims will fuel existing concerns in Okinawa that Naha's port, Kadena Air Base and the U.S. Marines' Camp Schwab are still contaminated with Agent Orange dioxins, which have remained in the soil for decades. In a November 2011 press conference, people residing near Camp Schwab in the late 1960s explained that their neighbors had fallen ill after eating shellfish gathered near the installation. Others worried that the early deaths of former base workers may have resulted from their spraying of Agent Orange.

Barrels of pain: A form that Larry Carlson sent to the Department of Veterans Affairs lists the health problems attributed to his exposure to Agent Orange in the 1960s. COURTESY OF LARRY CARLSON

Naha Port was the main entry point for Agent Orange on Okinawa

In southern Vietnam, the ground where former U.S. military installations once stored the herbicide remains highly toxic to this day. Scientists have identified almost 30 potential dioxin hotpots - including Da Nang Air base where dioxin levels up to 30,000 times normal levels have been found. To date, the Japanese government has blocked requests for dioxin tests on Okinawa’s bases, claiming that it found the testimonies of US veterans’ implausible.

Given Carlson's allegation that local stevedores helped unload leaking barrels of the toxic defoliant, Okinawan residents are likely to be alarmed about their own risk of exposure. In the mid-1960s, roughly 50,000 Okinawa residents were employed at U.S. military bases.

Carlson also recalls witnessing the chemical being sprayed as a weed-killer at Kadena air base.

"Sometimes, the supply chain would request 10 drums (of Agent Orange), so the trucks would go up there (to the base) and unload whatever they had asked for. There were workers spraying the chain link fence so that it looked neat," he said. The usage of Agent Orange in this manner was widespread in South Vietnam, Guam and Thailand due to these locations’ quick-growing vegetation.

Carlson first suspected that he had been sickened by his exposure to the dioxin-laden defoliant in 2005.

"I hit the brick wall. My kidneys weren't functioning. They diagnosed me with Parkinson's Disease. Then lung cancer. . . . They removed half of my left lung and parts of my right," he said.

Carlson also worries that his own exposure may have affected the health of his children, who could have inherited genetic defects. His daughters suffer from thalassemia — a rare, inherited blood disorder — and two of them gave birth to stillborn babies.

Carlson first applied for redress in 2006. In his claim he wrote, “Constant pain in kidneys, prostate and bowel. Heart problems - hole in my heart. Severe hypertension. All of these problems I feel is a direct result of exposure to Agent Orange. I was with the 44th Transportation Comp. on Okinawa, Japan, where we transported 55 gallon drums of the agent to storage facilities.”

Carlson displays the scars from his lung cancer surgery.

The VA dismissed his claims. While Vietnam War veterans are automatically eligible to receive benefits for 14 dioxin-related illnesses, the Pentagon's denials over Agent Orange's presence on Okinawa scuppered Carlson's initial application.

But he persisted in his battle over compensation and collected five statements from fellow service members who had worked alongside him at Naha's port. All of their accounts corroborated Carlson's claim that large quantities of the herbicide were transported through the docks. One of these men has since died from ischemic heart disease while another is suffering from prostate cancer - both diseases are listed by the U.S. government as related to dioxin-exposure.

Carlson also tracked down a 1966 U.S. Air Force document that described an 18-day trip by civil engineering representatives to the Philippines, Taiwan and Okinawa to teach naval and air force service members how to safely handle herbicides. According to the report, one of the purposes of the trip was to “review base programs and assist individual bases with establishment of safer and more effective programs” related to the usage of these chemicals. The report also stated that “Literature on various products was distributed at the conference and all bases visited. This action is designed to keep sections informed on some of the newer chemicals now available for pest and weed control.” Given that Agent Orange was first formulated on a large scale in 1966, many veterans suspect that it is among the “newer chemicals” mentioned.

Infantrymen like Carlson, however, received no such training and handled Agent Orange without any protective equipment.

Proud to serve - Carlson in uniform from his time in service. COURTESY OF LARRY CARLSON

"A simple training session would have saved some of the guys from being contaminated," Carlson said.

The documentation tipped the scales in Carlson's favor. In July 2010, the VA's regional office in St. Petersburg, Florida, awarded him its maximum disability compensation due to his exposure to Agent Orange on Okinawa.

"We determined that the claim you submitted for lung cancer . . . was substantiated by the information and evidence in VA's possession," a letter he received from the office says.

Carlson currently receives $2,800 a month to cover his medical expenses, which include a daily dose of more than 20 pills to keep the effects of dioxin-poisoning under control.

"When I received the letter, I felt blessed. I felt that an unseen hand had touched the heart of the person who awarded that claim. I am really thankful for the VA," he said.

Redress: A VA letter awarding Larry Carlson benefits is seen. COURTESY OF LARRY CARLSON

During the past year, more than 30 U.S. veterans have talked with me about sicknesses they attribute to exposure to Agent Orange during deployments covering 15 military installations on Okinawa between 1961 and 1975.

U.S. government records show a further 130 veterans have lodged compensation claims similar to Carlson's, and experts say the number of those exposed could be in the thousands.

The VA has only approved redress in two other cases.

One involved a former marine who developed prostate cancer from his exposure to herbicides on Okinawa from 1961 to 1962, and who was awarded benefits in 1998.

The other concerned a claim from another marine, who also served on Okinawa, for Hodgkin's lymphoma and diabetes mellitus type 2 attributed to handling contaminated equipment shipped from the Vietnam War to Okinawa in the early 1970s.

Taken together, these three successful claims paint a worrying picture of not only the long term presence of these poisons on Okinawa - but also the vast geographic extent of their usage from the Yanbaru jungles (where the 1998 veteran was exposed) through Camp Schwab to Naha Port in the south of the island.

Paul Sutton, a former chairman of the Agent Orange/Dioxin Committee run by the Vietnam Veterans of America, a nonprofit organization, expressed doubt that the Pentagon will relent and fully compensate all the other veterans exposed to the herbicide on Okinawa.

"The U.S. government will fight tooth and nail against granting compensation to veterans who served on Okinawa," said Sutton.

"To do so would be an admission that it violated treaties not to store herbicides within other countries' political boundaries. Washington is also betting that not enough veterans will come forward to fight over their (Agent Orange) exposure on Okinawa."

This is a revised and expanded version of an article that appeared in The Japan Times on April 15, 2012. A Japanese translation is available here.

Jon Mitchell is currently coordinating two Japanese TV documentaries about Agent Orange on Okinawa - including "The Scoop Special", a 90-minute program for TV-Asahi which is set to air on May 20th 2012. The Welsh-born writer is based in Yokohama and represented by Curtis Brown Ltd., New York. He has written widely on Okinawan social issues for the Japanese and American press - a selection of which can be found here . He teaches at Tokyo Institute of Technology and is an Asia-Pacific Journal associate.

Recommended Citation: Jon Mitchell. "U.S. Veteran Exposes Pentagon’s Denials of Agent Orange Use on Okinawa," The Asia- Pacific Journal, Vol 10, Issue 17, No. 2.



Reprinted in Agent of Change on May 12, 2012, this article prompted the following reader comments on day one:



May 11, 2012 3:00am
Several years ago my Vietnam War veteran friend died from agent orange exposure. He was in his early 50s.
100% of the male smallmouth bass sampled from the Potomac River in the nation's capital had ovaries!

This is a very alarming canary in the coal mine finding. This should give the ultra-tough man fascists pause because such pollution levels might compromise their he-manliness. They'll just have to increase their dose of steroids to compensate. Bwahahahaha

What? You don't like pink slime? Man up! You must be toughened up for the coming soylent green.


My own experience in the U.S. army over 40 years ago showed me the systematic lies built into chains of command then. I'm not surprised they continue now that the U.S. subsidizes:

-- the nuke industry's guaranteed forever poisons and toxins;

-- genetic-modifying, mass feedlot, & processed food Industrial Ag;

-- freeway, highway, & parking-lagoon-based sprawl culture;

-- for-profit standardized testing;

-- for-profit prisons;

-- for-profit health care;

-- "higher" ed based on corporate-style departmentalizations;

-- drug syndicates, both those of Big Pharma and all the street gangs.

It's a sick, sick culture now, the American -- so of course it relies on a gulag of over 700 military bases in over 130 countries -- and, too, on the same sickening ingredients there as at home. And even more on the lies I saw first-hand long ago.


The Department of Defense can afford to play the waiting game hoping that Vietnam War-era veterans will die off before they have a chance to have their Agent Orange disability claims heard by the Veterans' Administration.

The US military violated international treaties AGAIN and stored Agent Orange on Okinawa (There's a surpise -- NOT!) and must maintain the lie to save face.

And US soldiers thought that the Viet Cong and ARNV was the enemy in the Vietnam conflict.


May 10, 2012 1:38pm
May God's wrath and justice come down on those who put their love of money above their love of man.


May 10, 2012 11:59am
Scientific evidence is mounting that Monsanto's best-selling herbicide RoundUp also causes birth defects. A new generation of babies born near fields of "RoundUp Ready" (genetically modified) soy in Argentina are suffering birth defects as terrible as those found in the Agent Orange contaminated areas of Vietnam. Scientific research published in 2010 showed that Monsanto's Roundup and the chemical on which it is based, glyphosate, cause birth defects in frog and chicken embryos at dilutions much lower than those used in agricultural and garden spraying.

Industry and regulators knew aslong ago as the 1980s and 1990s that glyphosate causes malformations – but that this informationwas not made public.

Monsanto's “exciting” new GMO seeds are resistant to more than one kind of pesticide. Rather than resisting Monsanto’s glyphosate-based Roundup alone, they will now also be resistant to Dow AgroScience’s pesticide 2,4-D . Agent Orange is a mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D.

So the next generation of GMOs is made to resist one of the major chemicals used in Agent Orange! Monsanto and Big Agra are planning to dump this crap on all of our food. Big corporations and our own government are poisoning us and our unborn babies.


There were soldiers exposed to defoliants even in WWII.
My father was an MD stationed in the S Pacific (Truk Isl.). The island, and it's inhabitants were regularly exposed to defoliants. He developed a rare leukemia and died @ 55.
As an MD and medical researcher, he, and at least two colleagues, were convinced that it was his exposure to those chemicals that caused his cancer.

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MSgt LeRoy Foster, USAF, Retired
I am the veteran who is like Larry Carlson but I handled, mixed and power sprayed AO herbicides on Guam for ten years during the vietnam war. I know about the cover up and the denials. Veterans were kept from talking to one another and to keep things in the dark. The VA did not want other veterans to know what Admiral Zumwalt testified in 1993 and they didn't want vets to know what Dr. Michael Sovick testified either who later became IOM AO Director before Dr. Mary Paxton. Dr. Sysfres of the University of Guam was wisked away when he discovered the amounts of TCDD Dioxin in Guam. They didn't want this known nor wanted to scare away the tourist trade from Japan, China, etc. The coverup of AO herbicides in the theater of operations is huge as well as in the United States and Canada which is coming out in the news.
Lcpl. Micheal B. Amo, Minnesota
I was stationed in the USMC Redistribution and Disposal Unit at Camp Foster in Okinawa during 1968 & early 1969. This was basically a junk yard and I was a general warehouseman and rough terrain forklift operator. Our work included handling the contents of sea-land containers coming from Viet Nam back to us with contents such as soiled blankets, shot up flak jackets and the like. These items were covered with agent orange, dried blood, maggots, etc. and we would hand extract and fold/search and secure these items for hours at a time until each container was empty and sorted. Motor vehicles were also handled and searched in our junk yard, with no use of gloves or other protection. During 2010 I applied for service connection for agent orange exposure on Okinawa during my 13-month tour and was denied compensation for chronic prostatitis (age 20 when acute) as well as diabetes. The reason for the denial was that there is no evidence that agent orange was ever on the island of Okinawa. Funny how the truth eventually comes to the surface.
dale gaulden
I was stationed at camp foster in 1971 3531 motor vehicle operator 3rd force regiment. We had two 55 drums on the back side of motor pool/ware house. we would mixed diesel and the weed killer (agent orange) before we put up fence around motor pool. The native islanders would also spray it on yard to hold down the dust. We use to spray the snells and spiders(just dump ass marines something to do). I want and have wanted to fill but was told waste of time that I would be turned down. I am fixing to try and retry to get benefits. Got out in Dec. 1971. IN 1972 0r 1973 debetic II, heart cad 1980, lost teeth by 1974. and on Sept. 30,2014 going for biophies on my prostate. Need to find some one help push this for me.
David Louis Johnson
I always knew my physical and mental health issues had more to do then just exposure to Jet Fuel exhaust and vaccinations; always wondered about Agent Orange. Recently found a new Facebook site, CCK Air Base, Taiwan. In conversation with others there, found one TDY C_130 inspector who asked the question when first got to CCK, what is the oily stuff on the wings. he was told, oh just Agent Orange, no big deal. Came across one who came to CCK after me, he found out that the Mosquito spraying unit had been written up for not cleaning its spray tanks after spraying herbicides, was it Agent Orange of 2 4 D or etc. So we went around the base breathing in more then DDT or Etc. The other day ran into a Viet Nam Vet who had been TDY to CCK Air Base, a maintenance mechanic for C-130s, he asked after arriving what is the yellow green powder in the wheel well area, was told, residue left over from Spraying Agent Orange. Today at Golden Corral, came across a Navy Cook who served 3 tours in Nam, he said everyone knew that the Taiwan Air Force Bases were know for their spray runs of Agent Orange.
Robin R Poe
Stationed at Camp Hansen Feb 1972 thru July 1972 exposed around the base and in the Northern Jungle Training Area. We were at a bunker and I have pics of several drums laying around and other Marines spraying the Jungle around us, we would also use drums as outhouses then burn the waste with diesel and left over herbicides and human waste. And I now have ischemic heart disease inverss psorias filed a claim 2013 Denied Agent Orange never on the Island.
David R carpenter
I was a Marine stationed at Camp Courtney in Okinawa. My job processing and interacting with other marines. I can in contact with all of the exposures to Agent Orange. Since then I have had a stroke, hole in my heart, hypertension, prostate problems, more. I really need some help.
Michael J Dalton
I was at CCK in 1971 374th fuel specialist jp 4 fuel on tarmack. Have type diabetes, Hart attack, We at Clark AFB and at,Wright Patterson in Dayton Ohio for 3 mouths in for mental evaluation . had been addiction to valium and canal for years, have seen a psychiatrist for over 20 years and befor it I had seen a priest when I 1ST got out of AF also have a bad rash on my chest. I have a compensation hearing come up at the VA. I do REALLY think I have been exposed to Dixon Poison thank you Michael Dalton
Albert R. Braxton
I served on Okinawa 1968-1970 with the 420 Medical Company and worked with the Preventive Medicine unit close to the main hospital up on the hill. I did work all over the island south to the northern most area where the dam was being constructive. Did surveys at Naha on ship decks and the below deck holding areas for all kinds of chemicals. I worked with industrial hygienist and sanitation engineers as well as other enlisted soldiers. Witnessed backpack spraying around the barracks schools and Kadena Airbase and many places where I did surveys. The smell was strong and offensive. The spraying killed vegetation everywhere. Visible that it was not water being sprayed. I certainly know the dioxins -agent orange was being used in the sprayers. The solution always came from a container filled from a barrel. Many time locals who wanted a real paying job did a lot of spraying around the barracks many times in my eighteen months duty. Soldiers sprayed as well including me around our small office not far from the hospital in Sukiran. I have since had a quadruple coronary bypass, plaque psoriasis and hypogonadism low T medical issues. I feel that my medical issues are reflective. Of Agent Orange exposure while serving honorably in the US Army on Okinawa.
Thomas Lucken
I am a veteran of the Korean DMZ! Many of us who served on the DMZ after the current presumptive dates (68 to 71) are battling A.O. related illnesses. Now the Army and VA claimed A.O. was used only in 68 and 69, and along the southern boundary of the DMZ! CDC and EPA also claim that the half-life of the Dioxins last 25 to 100 years, (1969 + 25 = 1994!!!! Many of us who served on the DMZ in the 80s, started suffering from neuropathy alone in our 40s, let alone all the other issues! I have a son who has spinal bifida and a 3rd kidney!
Michael Henry Jacques
I was assigned to the 461st Combat Defense Squadron as an air police security officer in Amarillo, Texas from 1963 to 1967. I went TDY with the 461st Bombardment Wing B52's and KC 135's from Jan '67 to June '67 during operation Arc Light on Andersen AFB, Guam. During that time the scope of my duties was to provide security of the personnel, aircraft, weapons, flight line, etc. These duties caused me to patrol on foot and vehicle, the perimeter base fencing both inside and out, the flight line ramp/aircraft, the remote gates, bomb, chemical, fuel, etc. I have witnessed and experienced the spraying of herbicides in these areas. I walked, sat, ate, drove, and occasionally was exposed to the visible herbicide mists never thinking of or being advised that these chemicals were toxic to us. We were never issued protective gear. Long story short. In 1995 I was suffered a heart attack, Ischemia diagnosed. In 2009 I was diagnosed with an abdominal soft tissue sarcoma, had surgery/radiation. I filed for VA benefits in April 2015 after discovering AO was the herbicide sprayed. Was denied by the VA Aug 2015, am appealing but not confident. Both diseases recognized by the VA, but deny spraying AO on Guam. Stay tuned.
Bill Williams
I am reluctant to get involved in this Agent Orange issue but my heart and common sense tells me to tell the truth. I was stationed with the 306th Bomb Wing Safety Office in 1966 when I was presented with orders to be stationed TDY for 180 days with the 4252 Strategic Wing at Kadena AB Okinawa. I arrived in Sept 1966 with a Lt Col Davis and was assigned to the Air/Ground Safety office as a Admin. Specialist/Safety Tech (we did not have a Safety Tech assigned). After a few weeks the Safety Office was notified of a forklift punctured 55 gal. drum in the storage yard. I was told to drive down with the Major to gather information and complete a safety report for the records. When we arrived a drum with an orange stripe (Herbicide Agent Orange) was on the ground with a forklift puncture near the bottom of the drum and it was rolled on the side with the hole up to keep it from draining on the ground. There were two airmen standing in the puddle of herbicide trying to lift the drum. The major asked me to help them lift the drum up so the hole would be on the top. I did so and the liquid splashed on my hands, arms and shoes. There was an old towel on the forklift that I wiped my hands and arms. We collected the data off the drum and the cause of the incident, the purpose of the chemical and use. When typing the report I was told to refer to the chemical as AO Herbercide and present the report to Col. Davis the Safety Officer. He filed the report in the safe for classified materials and not the normal filing cabinets. He told me the report was to be safe guarded until the Air Force requested the file. I never thought much about it until the late 70's when I started reading reports of the dangers of the dioxins. I have never been sick (that I know of) from the AO I came in contact with, so I have never filed a VA claim. In 1967 my supervisor informed me that I had been requested to fly with him TDY to the 4258th Strategic Wing to work in the Operations Center scheduling KC-135 flight crews for missions and in April 1967 B-57 crew missions. While at U-Tapao Air Base I noticed the same 55 gal. drum with the Orange stripe stored on base. In late April I was returned to Kadena Air Base and back to the 306th Bomb Wing at McCoy AFB.
Bill Williams
I made a typing mistake of the following, (scheduling KC-135 flight crews for missions and in April 1967 B-57 crew missions) The corrected statement should be ( scheduling KC-135 flight crews for missions and in April 1967 B-52 crew missions). Thank you, Bill Williams
Like carlson I also served with the 44th trans co.and did the exact same thing and have been diagnosed with is chemical heart disease which is one of the smypthons related to agent orange and I was with the unit in 1968 and the same thing was being done then still(exactly) been denied by va over and over (help in any way?)
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Authors: For all articles by the author, click on author's name.   Jon Mitchell